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Unit summary: Astronomy 3 AS

Unit 3: It’s a Giant Leap for Mankind                                                                 Third Year, Sc/Ge

Unit Summary

1-Asking Questions about measurements

How + adjective/adverb + to be (is/are) + subject +?

Question words

Measurements

Arabic

Examples

How deep

Depth

العمق

How deep is the Mediterranean sea?

How far

Distance

المسافة

How far is the moon from the earth?

How fast

Speed

السرعة

How fast are the space rockets?

How heavy

Weight

الوزن

How heavy is the space telescope?

How high

Height

الارتفاع

How high is the Fuji Mount?

How long

Length

الطول

How long is the Nile river?

How large

Diameter/size

القطر/الحجم

How large is Venus?

How many

Number

العدد

How many countries are there in the International Space Station?

How much

Quantity/time

الكمية/الوقت

How much time does Jupiter take for one orbit around the sun?

How old

Age

العمر

How old is Yuri Gagarin?

How tall

Height (people)

الطول للأشخاص

How tall is Neil Armstrong?

How wide

width

العرض

How wide are Mars rivers?

2-Comparison

Comparative (X/Y)

Short adjectives (1 syllable)

X +(to be)+adjective+er+than+Y

Long adjectives (2 syllables and more)

X+(to be)+more/less+Adjective+than+Y

Superiority(X with all)

Short adjectives

X+(to be)+the+adjective+est

Long adjectives

X+(to be)+the+most+adjective

Examples:

  1. The moon is faster than the earth in orbiting the sun.
  2. Space projects are the most expensive scientific projects.
  3. The meteors are the smallest bodies in the solar system.
  4. Pluto is the most distant planes in the solar system.

 

3-Similarity and Difference

 

Similarity

Difference

Adjectives (to be)

like – similar to – the same as – alike – comparable

unlike – different from – but – in contrast to

Verbs

to resemble

to differ from

Examples

  1. Like Jupiter, the earth orbits the sun. The moon is comparable to planets in reflecting the sun light.
  2. The moon is different from the planets that orbit the sun. The moon differs from the planets.

 

4-Pronunciation of Final –s

/s/

/z/

/iz/

/k –f –p –th –t /

/b –d –g –l –m –n –ng –r –v-w – th/

/j/ – /dj/ –ch –sh –s –z

books – takes –tests – months

needs – wills – means – knives

wishes – watches – judges

5-Stress Rules

2nd syllable

Before the last syllable

Third from the last

Second syllable verbs

Words ending in –tion –ation –sion  

-tic   

Words ending in –phy –gy –ty

rotate – believe –occur  -begin   –observe

suggestion – invasion –rotation –automatic

Philosophy – astronomy –astrology – conformity

Practice

Give the opposite of the following words keeping the same root.

form claim         c. successful           d. probable           e. aware        f. belief     g. encourage

Ask the questions which the underlined words answer.

The Hubble Telescope weighs 600 tons.

Yuri Gagarin was the first man to orbit the earth.

The earth takes 365 days to orbit the sun.

Mercury is the largest planet.

The earth rotates in a speed of more than 100 km/h.

There are thousands of satellites orbiting the earth.

People do not feel the rotation of earth due to gravity that keeps it stable.

Rewrite sentence a so as it means the same as sentence b.

Meteors are dissimilar to asteroids which are larger.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

If scientists do not take the right measures, asteroids will hit the earth.

Provided that …………………………………………………………………………………………

Astrology is not a science, because its results are changeable.

Since…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Thousands of satellites survey the earth.

The earth ………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Imagine what A says and complete the dialogue.

A: ………………………………………………………?

B: Astronomy studies the sun, the moon and other heavenly bodies.

A: ………………………………………………….?

B: Scientists have discovered so far 9 planets.

A: …………………………………………………………………..?

B: No. Neptune is the farthest planet from the sun.

A: …………………………………………………………………….?

B: it is 4 497 million KM far from the Sun.

Fill in the gaps with words from the list.

minutes – formed –solar system –evolved –small –galaxies – yeas –picture

By observing …………. formed billions of years ago, astronomers have been able to paint an increasingly detailed ……………. of how the universe ……………… According to the widely accepted Big Bang theory, our universe was born in an explosive moment approximately fifteen billion ……………… ago. All of the universe’s matter and energy -even the fabric of space itself- was compressed into an extremely …………………… volume and then began expanding at an incredible rate. Within ………………., the universe had grown to the size of the ……………………. and cooled enough so that equal numbers of protons, neutrons, and the simplest atomic nuclei had …………………..

WRITTEN EXPRESSION

Write an essay/a paragraph in one of the following topics.

  1. Imagine that with a group of tourists you went on planet Mars. How life would be like their compared to earth.
  • Mars/planet of solar system
  • More space/no inhabitants
  • No traffic jam/no pollution

But – no form of life/no water

  • No leisure/boring life
  • No nice places to visit
  1. Talk about the solar system and the different heavenly bodies in our galaxy (The Milky Way).
  2. Compare the planets Mars and earth. Talk about the similarities and the differences.

Mars: – Inner planet/red planet

  • diameter: 6.794km /Temperature: -55° C
  • distance from the sun : 229 millions km
  • day length: 24 hour and 27 minutes
  • atmosphere: no oxygen but carbon dioxide (95%)/two moons
  1. Do you think that space exploration is important? Give your arguments.
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